"Right Now" Bacteria and Hiatt System (mini review)

  • #1
The Hiatt system (Right Now bacteria and Tri-Base Pelletized Carbon) seems to generate a lot of controversy in other forums. I guess some people find the Hiatt claims too hard to believe but, after reading the Hiatt promotional materials online and studying the Hiatt patents, I didn't find the claims any more amazing than the commonly accepted workings of our traditional "good" aquarium bacteria, that are responsible for the "normal" aquarium nitrogen cycle. Bacteria can do amazing things! If bacteria can process ammonia and nitrites, why not nitrates and even phosphates too--and even process them aerobically.

Given the controversy over Hiatt products, I guess I'd better state here that I have no interests or incentives to report favorably or unfavorably, or one way or the other, about the Hiatt products. When I don't see positive results, I report so, as I've done in the past in these forums, but now on to my minI review...

For me, the two big Hiatt claims for Right Now bacteria, if used as recommended, are:

1. 24 hour cycling.
2. Aerobic nitrate removal.

Hiatt makes many other claims for their products and filtration methods, but these are the features I've validated (in freshwater only) over the last month or so.

Right Now bacteria is sold in plastic bottles in quantities appropriate for 25 gallons, 60 gallons, and greater volumes of water. Unlike Bio-Spira, the stuff is dry and held in an oatmeal cereal-like flake Refrigeration is not required. You simply add water to the stuff and dump it in the tank. Hiatt sells, and highly recommends, two kinds of filter media for Right Now bacteria--Tri-Base Pelletized Carbon (TBPC), and "Earth Pellets." RIght Now is claimed to work with other filter media and traditional filters too, but the instructions on the bottle say to use the correct quantity of TBPC and the advised water flow rate, if 24 hour cycling is desired. The optimal water flow rate is 10 times the tank volume per hour, though a range from 6 to 10 times tank volume is considered good. The recommended amount of TBPC (in pounds) is tank volume (in gallons) divided by 6. Hiatt claims the Right Now bacteria, when paired with TBPC, aerobically consumes nitrates and phosphates, along with the more usual ammonia and nitrites.

But maybe you have a planted tank and you don't want to completely scrub your water of nitrates and phosphates (plant fertilizer) and strip it clean of pretty much all other nutrients too. In that case, Hiatt recommends Earth Pellets media. Earth Pellets appear to be very similar to other light expanded clay aggregate products, like Hydroton, commonly used in hydroponics and even ponds and aquariums--particularly in Europe where Hydroton is made. With Earth Pellets, the Right Now bacteria will not have a carbon source so they cannot process nitrates and phosphates which leave fertilizer for the plants to consume.

I'm interested in combining a ratio of Earth Pellets and TBPC to "tune" a tank for the plant load vs. fish load. In fact, my current test setup is heading along those lines. Through my past experiences with anything but a very light load of fish, a very large number of plants is necessary to reduce nitrate levels to zero. Keeping a lot of plants nice and attractive in a tank is a bunch of work for me; otherwise, the tank ends up looking like a refugium! The Hiatt system provides another method of nitrate control besides plants and conventional water changes. By the way, Hiatt does not recommend completely ceasing periodic water changes, because water changes are necessary to insure trace elements are replenished in the tank. Trace compounds can be added through other products too, of course.

Besides the TBPC vs. Earth Pellets ratio, the other parameter that can be varied in the filtration system is aeration. For fish, Hiatt recommends a splashy, above water, return from the filter. In a fish only tank, the bacteria use O2 and the fish also use O2 so you want to keep O2 levels up and who cares about CO2! For a planted tank, well...plants will care. Plants like CO2. For plants, it's best to place the filter water return beneath the surface to not "blow off" most of the CO2 the bacteria are making for the plants while they are processing toxins and waste. A planted tank with fish involves, as usual, a balance between O2 and CO2. The plants make some O2 for the fish and the fish make some CO2 for the plants but the bacteria need some O2 and produce CO2 too. It's a balancing act and the TBPC vs. Earth Pellets should allow us to "tune" the balance. Remember, the bacteria are aerobic and they are using O2 from the water so the O2-depleted water return can be positioned accordingly--more splashy" for more O2 and less splashy for more CO2.

After running a favorable small test in a 2.5 gallon tanks with liquid ammonia, I decided to set up a 10 gallon test tank with two 2" goldfish. I had one pound of TBPC for testing, which is only enough for a 6 gallon un-planted tank so I made up the 4 gallon difference with 1/3 lb of Earth Pellets. (The recommended amount of Earth Pellets is tank gallons / 12.) My intent is to tune a ratio of TBPC and Earth Pellets to the ratio of fish and plants, i.e., use a higher proportion of TBPC for fish or use a higher proportion of Earth Pellets for heavily planted tanks.

I made up a DIY filter out of two feet of 3" ABS plastic pipe, which provides enough filter volume for somewhere around 15 to 18 gallons of tank water. After soaking and aerating the 1 lb of TBPC in water for a couple of days, as advised on the package, I loaded it into the bottom of the vertical pipen and placed a media bag containing 1/3 of Earth Pellets on top of the TBPC. The filter output would be at the top. I figured the most oxygen rich water would hit the TBPC carbon first, thus maximizing the nitrate reduction provided by the TBPC. The Earth Pellets would follow up as a non-nitrate reducing bacteria bed. I positioned the pipe vertically because it was not full of media and gravity and the Earth Pellets bag would keep the media in position in the pipe.

I set the flow rate on my Mini-Jet pump to 100 gph, as measured into a large storage bowl positioned held at the water return, and I added the fish and Right Now at the same time. After 24 hours, I tested for ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates with an API kit and they all read zero. I tested every day for the first week and every other day for the following week. I've never detected ammonia or nitrites. In fact, my understanding is nitrites never show up with the Hiatt system.. According to the Hiatt patent, RIght Now is a mixture of BacillI genus bacteria, which is quite different than the strains used in Bio-Spira. After two weeks, nitrates are still zero or nearly zero (still no plants in the tank) so I may need to slowly reduce the ratio of TBPC, once I add plants.

Bio-Spira is the only other product I've used that works fast cycling. Based on my limited tests, here is a comparison with Right Now:

Bio-Spira Pros:
1. Bacterial agent now known to be common in aquaria with good track record for stability of the bacteria colonies. (Normally, once
established, no "refresh" of bacteria is necessary.)
2. Product is invisible in the water.
3. Works well with all conventional filters.

Bio-Spira Cons:
1. Requires refrigeration.
2. Expensive (see above!)
3. No nitrate or phosphate reduction.
4. Must use the entire packet--can't easily save remainder for later.
5. Nitrite spike still occurs until NOBs fully colonize--it's just a
fairly weak spike but recent studies indicate that nitrites are probably
worse than many previously thought and nitrites are not much less toxic than ammonia.
6. Prime and water changes can "kill" the establishment of a full cycle.

Right Now Pros:
1. No refrigeration necessary.
2. More reasonably priced than Bio-Spira.
3. Easy to use partial dose and store remainder. (I calculated about 1
teaspoon / 10 gallons--or perhaps just a bit less.)
4. Aerobic nitrate and phosphate removal possible with
5. Plant-enriching CO2 production without carbon. (I've not yet verified.)
6. No nitrite spike.
7. Seems to still work with Prime and water changes, based on my 2.5 gallon testing.

Right Now Cons:
1. Bacteria oatmeal-like "carrier" is unsightly, once it settle onto
some aquarium substrates (fine sand, for example). Placing into a filter or bag might work, however.
2. Large quantities of filter media (TBPC or Earth Pellets)
recommended by Hiatt, which requires large capacity filters. Carbon
media necessary for some features--perhaps even for "24 hour" cycling.
3. Aerobic nitrate reduction requires an above water, splashy return, which can be a bit noisy.
  • #2
Cool, calinb.....you have it up and running. I will be interested in seeing how this works on a more heavily stocked tank. Also, any idea how long the TBPC or Earth Pellets "last", do they have to be replaced as you would carbon in a traditional filter?
  • #3
Okay, I just want to make sure I'm not missing something here.
The Right Now bacterium (the oatmeal-like stuff) is a one-time additive that is entirely submerged?
How often are you supposed to change out the carbon?

I'm almost thinking this is smoke-and-mirrors, allowing the regular cycle to happen and using temporary means to control the ammonia/nitrite spikes. I'm not positive about this, though. I'm only going on what I know about the types of bacteria that normally consume nitrogen. There's too much of this that doesn't seem quite right.
Still, if it works one way or another, and people are willing to pay for it, great! I still like the filter media switch method of cycling.
  • Thread Starter
  • #4
Cool, calinb.....you have it up and running. I will be interested in seeing how this works on a more heavily stocked tank. Also, any idea how long the TBPC or Earth Pellets "last", do they have to be replaced as you would carbon in a traditional filter?

The TBPC is said to last a few years as a bacteria bed, though they warn it only lasts a short time when used more traditionally (and in much smaller quatities) to remove toxins, medicines, etc. It's a carbon source for the bacteria so I guess it eventually "poops out" as "food" for them but, again, that takes years. We are talking about a very large quantity of carbon here. 20+ lbs of it for my future 125 gallon setup! The TBPC becomes the major expense of this setup for large tanks. Like other kiln fired clay products, (Hydroton) I don't see any reason why Earth Pellets should ever wear out

Okay, I just want to make sure I'm not missing something here.
The Right Now bacterium (the oatmeal-like stuff) is a one-time additive that is entirely submerged?

Yes--it's recommended that you just let it float around the tank and, eventually, sink. Most of it was picked up by the filter sponge and floss pad/mat that I'd wrapped around my Mini-jet pump as a pre-filter. I don't see why one could not just put it in the filter to begin with or in a media bag near or on the pump, but I wanted to follow the instructions so I just mixed it with tank water and dumped it into the tank. Though the water became cloudy and most of the "oatmeal" sank to the bottom, the water was crystal clear within two days and I eventually just vacuumed up the small amount of debris remaining in the tank and the rest went out with my prefilter change after about a week.

I'm almost thinking this is smoke-and-mirrors, allowing the regular cycle to happen and using temporary means to control the ammonia/nitrite spikes. I'm not positive about this, though. I'm only going on what I know about the types of bacteria that normally consume nitrogen. There's too much of this that doesn't seem quite right.
Still, if it works one way or another, and people are willing to pay for it, great! I still like the filter media switch method of cycling.
I've witnessed two things that indicate it's not just smoke-and-mirrors and our "ordinary" cycle.

1. I've never found ANY nitrites. Even when using Bio-Spira, I always detect a small nitrite spike. MajesticReefs.com (a Hiatt dealer) told me that never seeing nitrites is normal and expected. He no longer even even bothers to test for nitrites. Ammonia testing, to make sure the cycle is working, is probably enough. And perhaps nitrates too, if not doing a fish-only setup with 100% TBPC. Or, perhaps, just test for nitrates occasionally to make sure the bacteria carbon source is sufficient.

2. Zero nitrates (or at least much less than 5 ppm after two weeks--it's hard to read the API test a very low levels). Remember, I'm using a 60/40 filtering mix of TBPC and Earth Pellets and hoping for low, rather than zero nitrates. In fact, the orange is so slight in my API test, I may be imagining it, even now. I assure you these two little fish produce enough waste in two week to produce easily measurable amounts of nitrates. Based on my previous test with these fish, when they were even smaller, it should be about 10 ppm by now. I have 1 lbs of TBPC and 1/3 lbs of Earth Pellets or, putting it another way, 6 gallons is filtered by TBPC and 4 gallons is filtered by Earth Pellets, based on the recommended filtering capacity of each media type. (BTW, I've left out all the details of some fishless ammonia testing I did prior to setting up this tank and subjecting fish to "24 hour cycling," which more closely follows the intended usage model).

Initially, I did not have high expectations for Hiatt products because so many of these cycling products don't seem to do anything. Even now, I've only explored the 24 hour cycling and nitrate removal claims (all freshwater) but that much is working for me. I plan to purchase larger quantities of TBPC, which is the major expense, if using DIY pipe filters, and continue to explore the performance of the system. I think a reef tank is even in my future and that's where the Hiatt claims (using "pH Rock" downstream from the TBPC) look even more compelling (and more expensive, but who says reef tanks are cheap!)

Again, I have no agenda here other than to stimulate interest and consideration of new methods and ideas. If anyone else wishes to try the products, let's compare notes. It's important to study the system, however, because it's a bit complicated and unfamiliar, at first.

  • #5
Lack of nitrites and nitrates can be explained by nitrogen-absorbing media in the carbon mix, or a chemical in the oatmeal stuff that detoxifies nitrogen products.. If they figured out a way to do this that still allows a growing nitrifying colony to feed on what's in the carbon mix, you would never see nitrites.

I'm not saying that this doesn't work, just that I'm skeptical. It is too good to be true, and there are too many things that aren't explained. I don't like being told "it works" by companies. If they don't explain why it works, I am far more likely to presume that they're pulling something over on me.

Edit: Okay, so I found a little more about the process, that the company supposedly discovered an aerobic bacteria that performs the denitrifying process. If this is the case, that explains the nitrate reduction. It does not, however, cover the rest. The company's website does not cover the fact that, so far, nobody has found a nitrifying bacteria that can produce long-lived spores (which would be necessary to produce a bacteria that can survive, unrefrigerated, in a dry medium). If they had discovered such a thing, they would likely be bragging about it.
  • #6
Over the years I have encountered several products that were sold in a medium that didn't require refrigeration. Different products, one was a larvicide, the other a beneficial nemeotde to use in the garden.....fact is it is food for the bacteria to eat before use......I will continue to have an open mind....
  • Thread Starter
  • #7
I'm not saying that this doesn't work, just that I'm skeptical.
It's good to be skeptical (rather than cynical)!
The company's website does not cover the fact that, so far, nobody has found a nitrifying bacteria that can produce long-lived spores (which would be necessary to produce a bacteria that can survive, unrefrigerated, in a dry medium). If they had discovered such a thing, they would likely be bragging about it.
Well, I believe the bacteria in my bottle of Right Now survived! Running, mostly fishless, cycling experiements has actually become a bigger hobby for me than keeping fish, I think and I've never found a way to cycle a tank in under a week without using Bio-Spira until I tried Right Now. My quickest ammonia cycle, previously, was obtained using a sponge filter "seed" from another cycled tank. It still tested positive for ammonia for a full week.

My first two tests of Right Now were conducted in a tiny 2.5 gallon "Sesame Street" tank ($9 manager's special at petco w/ hood and filter ). It came with a small internal power filter. I gutted the carbon and sponge internals from the filter and packed it full of 4 mm Hydroton (smaller than Earth Pellets). It would only hold about 1/2 to 2/3 of the quantity of Earth Pellets filter media (by weight) that Hiatt recommends and it wasn't even Earth Pellets to begin with but, rather, a product I thought would be similar to Earth Pellets but smaller to more efficiently fit into the small filter. I measured the flow to be greater than 10x so I had to cut it down with more restrictive pre-filtering on the outside of the power filter pickup.

The water was unheated and I added 0.25 tsp of Right Now (approximately the recommended amount, or slightly more). The tank and filter was brand new and clean. I brought the ammonia level up to 5 ppm + with liquid ammonia, as indicated in an API test. 24 hours later, I checked th ammonia level and found the ammonia level had dropped slightly to something less than 5 ppm. Certainly, there was a lot of ammonia left, but I've never seen ammonia levels drop discernibly in only 24 hours without using Bio-Sprira. This result indicated to me that Right Now was working. I next tested for nitrites, because I've alway found nitrites in Bio-Spira cycling at the 24 hour point, but I found none. I found this to be unexpected but now realize the nitrites either are not produced as an intermediate steps in the process, or the bacteria promptly consume them too.

I drained the tank, but retained the filter media, and performed my next test with the two goldfish. I redosed with Right Now. Still no heater. The goldfish were only about 1.5" back then but the tank began to test positive for ammonia after a couple of days. The filter was clearly not keeping up, but this tank was under filtered with media and over stocked. Rather than abandon the experiment, I decided to add prime (daily based on the ammonia increase from the previous day) and complete water changes (~ every three days) to control the water toxicity. To make a long story short, the filter achieved equilibrium with the ammonia output of the two goldfish after about 3 weeks. This is still very quick and, I never saw nitrites--again, unlike every other cycling experiment that I've ever conducted. Clearly, this is something different.

I didn't report these first two experiments because I did not adhere to the Hiatt recommendations (I under-filtered and over-stocked) and I thought I'd spend my time (more than I'd planned) reporting a run more in line with Hiatt recommendations. Still--I learned that Prime and water changes don't "kill" the cycle (as I've seen using Bio-Spira) and the cycle is a different kind of cycle than I'd seen in the past (with some kind of nitrite spike.) These runs without TBPC did produce nitrates so, if there is a nitrate absorber in the system, it must be in the carbon. However, I have no reason to believe that's the case and the waste is being de-nitrified all the way to N2 gas, which is the case in the nitrogen cycle in nature.

Are BacillI de-nitrifying processes known, otherwise? I've found some references, but I'm hardly a bacteriologist. (But it would be nice if one could join this thread!)

As far as the dry spores go--if nothing has been publicly disclosed that explains it, my testing would indicate that Hiatt solved the problem within the "oatmeal" and Hiatt's solution falls into the realm of "trade secret." Sorry, but there's no other explanation consistent with my testing and results, if that's the case.

As always, a forum reader's mileage may vary, but please note that it doesn't cost much to set up a small test case and attempt to verify my results--especially if you are a DIY type, like myself. In fact, I would actually recommend to all interested readers here that they start with a small test or tank; don't take my word for it! If it doesn't work for you, you have only yourself and your preliminary testing to blame! Again, I have nothing to gain here, one way or the other, except perhaps collaboration with other interested forum members based on our experiences.

One other thing that's puzzled me is adding Right Now to an existing tank. Hiatt says it works too, but success implies to me that Right Now bacteria must eventually "out compete" the existing bacteria, in order to realize any additional benefits. I've not tried it with an existing and established tank but the results would also be interesting.

  • #8
The bacteria consume the Nitrates aerobically. The carrier, (bran flake) allows us to put the amount of bacteria on it and sell it as such. If we were to simply put in the bacteria, all you would see in the bottle is a little dust but with the carrier we can ensure the proper amount of bacteria per gram.

Also, you can use this with any filter. You do not need to use it with the TBPC unless you desire to have 24 hour cycling and aerobic nitrate and phosphate reduction. If you chose not to use the tbpc with the Right Now bacteria, you can instead use our Coral Stem and achieve the same results but you must dose it in order for it to work correctly.

The TBPC and the bran flake do not adsorb or absorb nitrate. In fact, the bran flake will be consumed by the bacteria as time goes on as a food source.

Our product has a 5 year shelf life if stored in a cool place. No reefer is required to keep it alive.

Simply using ammonia to start the cycle is not required. What is required are a couple of fish in the aquarium because they not only furnish ammonia, but all the other trace elements required to complete the cycle, which in fact is not a cycle at all.

If you have any further questions please write or call 562 428 9973 The system is stable after 24 hours. You can also make live sand by simply putting dead sand in the aquarium and then adding fish and the Right Now Bacteria

Another good thing if you follow our directions, you can cure really bad live rock in between 3 to 7 days and have fish swimming in the system after 7 days if it was really bad to start with.

Respectfully submitted,

  • Thread Starter
  • #9

Welcome aboard and thanks for your clarifications. I have many plans for the Hiatt system and I'm sure your guidance will prove invaluable.

So using fish with Right Now actually performs better than using the fishless method, initially, with only ammonia?

My 10 gallon "test" tank now has a few plants in it now. After three weeks, I detected the slightest amount of nitrate (< 5 ppm), which is the result I wanted with 1 lb of TBPC and 1/3 lb of Earth Pellets. I added the plants and lowered the water return close to the surface for less CO2 "blow off." I'm planning to buy a CO2 and O2 test kit but I wasn't comfortable placing the return completely underwater for my lightly planted tank yet. I'd rather err on the side of the fish and O2 supply.

My idea to balance the tank's fish vs. plant load with the TBPC to Earth Pellets ratio appears to be working in my 10 gallon test. I'll wager I'm pretty close to the right ratio to keep nitrate levels low with a small number of plants.

Still no measureable ammonia or nitrite, of course, as expected. It's working very well.

I call this my test tank because, as soon as my two RIO 20HF submersible pumps arrive, I'll be moving the fish (and others) to a brand new freshwater fish-only 125 gallon tank with 21 lbs of TBPC only. It should prove to be one of the lowest maintenance 125s around!

I accidentally froze my Right Now bottles in a new refrigerator so I used one of the small bottles in another test tank to make sure I had not harmed the product before using it on my 125. I used ammonia and, guess what--24 hours later I had zero ammonia and nitrite readings. I guess the RN survived the brief freeze until I got my thermostat correctly adjusted. I know RN doesn't require refrigeration but, at the time I stuck it in there, I didn't know how long it would be before I'd need it. Maybe there's no advantage to keeping it that cool at all.
  • #10

As you can see the RightNow! method works well and can cycle your aquarium in 1 day.
It works very well for Saltwater as well as FW.
SW requires more prestine water conditions for sensitive creatures. With the RightNow! system these animals can thrive and don't require the aquarium to cycle 8-12 weeks.
And no protein skimmer is required.

You are not alone in the RightNow! world.

This is not an experimental way of keeping fish... it was developed by HDL (snake) for over 7 years and took many years of peer review to attain a US patent.

My 12 gallon Small Polyp Stony (SPS) nano reef conversion

My 20 gallon mixed reef

here are some of my customer's tanks as I am also a Dealer:

PattyS converted a 12g Saltwater nano and started a 135g FW

75g Saltwater reef converted (no skimmer)

125g Freshwater to Saltwater converted 1 day, full stock day 2
(no live rock or live sand)

125g Saltwater mixed reef heavy fish load, conversion after ammonia, nitrite and nitrate problems

Animal Jungle Pet Store

Animal Jungle Shark Tank

Independant Review 1998

There are many other's so don't feel alone.

I can answer any questions you may have through correspondence on my website.
  • Thread Starter
  • #11
I'm building a filter for my 125 gallon goldfish tank now. I'll be getting a couple of Bristol shubunkins for it.

The Red Torpedos are very nice, but they get pretty expensive for a large tank like this one so I'm constructing my own filter for 21 lbs of TBPC. I call it "Cal's BBF" (Big Bucket Filter). 4" PVC would be okay, but I think my filter will present less resistance to the pumps and yet still not have any "dead spots." I'm building it with a 6 gallon bucket, Gamma Seal lid, PVC tubes and fittings, bulk filter pad material, and two submersible Rio Hyper Flow 20 pumps. I'll post pics to the DIY forum, once it's finished.

Just out of curiosity, why does new TBPC sizzle in water? What is the chemical or physical reaction causing it?

I'd like to put my "Metal Gone" before the TBPC filter. Is this okay? This 125 will not have plants so how much Metal Gone should I use?



Update on 125

My 125 has been running with four goldfish for two weeks now. The big bucket filter was too scary when pressurized (the bottom bulged) so I'm using more conventional 4" ABS pipe now--110" of it, which is about 7" more than I need for the recommended 21 lbs of TBPC. ABS can take the pressure produced by my two Rio Hyperflow 20 pumps, which is substantial.

I made the pipes long because I thought I might put a mechanical filters in them but removing and replacing the two clean out caps on the ends of the two pipes (and restoring the teflon thread tape) is too much trouble, just to periodically clean a mechanical filter. Hence, I ordered two 29" Lifegard triple AF-94 mechanical filters. Probably more than I need but the larger filters create less resistance to the pumps and better water flow and they won't require cleaning as frequently as the smaller filters.

The 24 hour cycling feature of the Hiatt Right Now bacteria and TBPC worked perfectly, I checked ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate at 24 hours and continue to check nearly daily. Zero! Scaling the system to this large tank was a bit pricey, but I'm sold on the excellent results and low maintenance.

I have four new Bristol shubunkins in a 38 gallon quarantine tank. I had to remove the TBPC filter to treat them with PrazI for flukes. Rick, with GoldfishConnection.com advised me to throw out the contaminated carbon, but it's 3.3 lbs worth! Instead of tossing it, I boiled it heavily for about 10 minutes, let it sit and cool, and then spread it out on plastic sheeting in the sun to dry out.

QUESTION to the Hiatt experts who joined the thread (or anyone else who knows about high quality activated carbon): Did boiling the carbon damage it for future use? The stuff was only about two months in service in my Hiatt test system filter and I hate to toss it.

2nd QUESTION to the Hiatt experts: When the new Bristols get out of quarantine, I'll add them to the 125 and consider it to be fully stocked. They are somewhat larger than the four fish now in the 125 so the bio load will increase considerably. I could add the new fish gradually, of course, but how about adding some Right Now with all four new fish and being done with it all at once? I figure I could cut down on the feedings for a while after adding the new fish too, which would help. What do you recommend? How much RN will I need when I add the new fish?

3rd QUESTION to anyone who knows about flukes: If there were any flukes in the carbon, did boiling and drying the carbon kill them? Is it safe to use?

I'll post pictures of my setup, when I get a chance.



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