Converting filter to biofilter or DIY?

Hello, I've found myself in an unfortunate situation.
My family has a small 50 gal outdoor pond with six water plants growing in it. I'm afraid I don't know what kind, my mother simply tossed them in and they've been multiplying since. There is a filter in it that my dad bought to try to keep mosquitos from breeding and I know nothing about it. I picked it up and looked it all over to try and see if it said how much it filtered or if it was a bio filter, but no luck.

About two weeks ago, I put the idea of keeping goldfish in the pond into my dads head, not thinking he would immediately go out and buy one. Just a few days ago, he bought another.

Monday, the new fantail, did horribly, confirming my thoughts that the filter was not fit for fish, so I quickly moved him into my running and empty 5gal, which I salted. Today, I fished out Sunday, and found he too had fin rot and white fuzz on his beautiful red head. He's now in the 5gal and already the rot is disappearing and he's swimming around a lot more.

They can't stay in the 5gal for long, even with the two filters I have running in it. So I've been mulling over some options.
1. Is there some way to convert the filter to a biofilter? Maybe I could somehow create a mesh or sponge bag to go around it that could filter the water was it's pulled through?
2. I could try making a DIY pond filter. The only problem is, I severely doubt my abilities in making it work, even though it seems simple enough. I found this video for a small filter
3. Buying a new filter. This is more difficult for me. My parents won't pay, and many sites won't accept my paypal. I also don't know what to look for in an adequate pond pump and filter.

Does anyone have any experience with option 1 and 2? I'm very eager to get the goldies back outside. Even though they're still tiny, I don't like having them in such a small tank.
there is multiple ways you can do this.

all you need is some way to get water to pass threw a sponge to make a 'bio filter'

although I don't know what kind of pump you have, as long as it pumps water, your good to go.

you can do it as the salt water basis works. in which you have the filters right in the water and have an under water pump to push the water threw it. (they use live rock, it is unneeded) the only down side is cleaning it, it is annoying. I experimented with it in a 10 gallon CC tank. it worked great... other then cleaning it.

you can use your 5 gal tank as a filter. pump the water from the pond into the tank, fill the tank full of sponges, then have the tank overflow into the pond.

to pump it, you don't even need a water pump. you can use an air stone. just have the air stone at the bottom of the tube, and the water will be forced up with the air.
A picture of the pond and the filter you have would be helpful. Also, if you have a picture of the plants, someone here might be able to help identify them.

A waterfall type filter would probably work. Basically, a pump that moves the water into a tub of some kind. The tub would be full of your filter media - whatever you decide to use. You can even go with large gravel (the kind that a lot of people use in their yards for desert landscaping). Then, the water overflows out of the tub back into the pond.

For my pond, I have an external pressurized filter with a uv. The uv helps to prevent the green pea soup algae bloom each year. It also kills a lot of the bad bugs (such as ICH). I then have the water directed into preformed plastic "streams" that I got at Home Depot. These are designed to direct the water so they make great waterfalls. I have them built up on block to raise them above the surface of the pond to make a nice waterfall.

Oh, and just a side note - having a pump in the pond does not keep mosquitoes away. You need some type of fish in there to eat the mosquito larvae. Mosquitoes lay their eggs on any relatively still section of the water. The only way to keep the mosquitoes out of the pond would be to guarantee a way for every square inch of the surface of the water to be in motion 100 % of the time. Goldies will eat the mosquitoes and their larvae, but it might be a good idea to consider Mosquito Fish. They sole purpose in life is to eat little wrigglies in the water.
I think I should toss some of that mosquio fish in most still water EVERYWHERE!! around where I live.

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