So, a lot of people talk about water changes. I want to know opinions, and hopefully everyone can learn something new. =] (Please note I do 20% weekly in my tanks) Does waterchanges remove BB? How often should a waterchange be done / how much? I estimate 20% change will remove 25% Nitrates. (Vac'ing gravel) my total guess. Opinions? I also do think it is possible to over-vac. If you vac substrate daily will it cause a BB recycle? (Also depends on filter media) How often should you change filter media? Carbon, bio-wheel/bio-cubes/bio-noodles (look like giant macaroni), squeeze sponge, swap removable inserts. Obviously a lot of things change while people are cycling tank. (Whether fish in or fish out) If cycling w/ Ammonia, there shouldnt me any 'mess' in your tank. How long does this take? Just moving water, and yeah. - then should you still do waterchanges? If cycling w/ flakes (no fish) you should expect a mess. How much should you feed, how often, how long does it take? - how often to waterchange? Wouldnt you want to keep all the ammonia/nitrite to keep cycle going full blast? Or start changes when Nitrates are present? If fish-in cycling, you obviously need to provide regular Prime/conditioner/amm neutralizers to keep them safe for fish, along w/ water changes. How often? And how long does this take? I have heard of plants that eat Nitrates (of course), yet I have also heard of them eating ammonia? Fact check? Opinions on driftwood? Necessary for a tank? Or simply for look? What/when is it appropriate to add/remove the following? -mineral rocks -driftwood -real/fake plants -ornaments -BB (ie waterchanges, redoing ornaments, redoing substrate, etc etc) -water conditioners -water chemicals (pH up/down, cloudy water, anti-bacterials for sickness, UV-Sterilizer, chemicals for GH KH, etc) Quick explanation for pH values, (most fish are 6.0-8.0) Quick explanation for GH/KH (dont personally know this minus soft/hard) Any other questions, please add! Ich, when to QT, and when to not. Raising/lowering temps, etc.